Garden Pieces 2001

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“Garden Pieces” programme notes (2001). Courtesy of Peter Todd.

Film Poems 4: Messages 2003

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“Film Poems 4: Messages” programme notes (2003). Courtesy of Peter Todd.

Film Poems 3 2001

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“Film Poems 3” programme notes (2001). Courtesy of Peter Todd.

Film Poems 1999

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“Film Poems” programme notes (1999). Courtesy of Peter Todd.

Audience reponses to Blue Black Permanent

Comments from ‘The Persistence of Spirit’: Blue Black Permanent (Screening & Reunion of Cast and Crew) on 15 June 2019 at Summerhall, Edinburgh


Margaret Tait, Blue Black Permanent, 1992. Courtesy of British Film Institute.

Such a beautiful film. Fascinating to see the themes and imagery from Margaret’s shorts come through and be developed. The ending destroyed me.

Michael Romer
Wonderful to see Blue Black Permanent on a big screen again—and in a restored format. Some—many—films age but Blue Black Permanent does not seem to have done so.

I have not seen the film since 1992 at the film festival. I enjoyed it as much today as then.

Robina, BBP Art Department
This is the second time I’ve seen Blue Black Permanent this year. It’s a film you need to watch more than once—there are so many layers to it. I’ve been thinking a lot about working with Margaret and her films. There’s lots I could say but far too much to fit on this card. I might write my thoughts down elsewhere, get in touch if you would like to hear them.

Margaret Tait, Blue Black Permanent, 1992. Courtesy of British Film Institute.

Even lovelier than I remember.

Christine Maclean
Sarah—thank you for today—lovely to reminisce and enjoy Blue Black Permanent once again.

Richard Demarco
Blue Black Permanent was the masterpiece that only Margaret Tait could have made. As a poet first and foremost who loved the visual world, as a true artist, expressed in the final sequence.

Frances Scott
Where was the mermaid cave scene filmed? (Yesnaby?) Significant to me was the scene of the Shaalder [Tait family boat] going to the island—layered family memories—my own, my dad’s, family albums from 1950s–50s. Important scene—Primula Scotica on clifftop—“It will only grow here. When they try to transplant it, it dies.”

Charles Stephens

In principio erat Verbum et Verbum erat apud Deum et Deus erat Verbum hoc erat in principio apud Deum omnia per ipsum facta sunt et sine ipso factum est nihil quod factum est in ipso vita erat et vita erat lux hominum et lux in tenebris lucet et tenebrae eam non conprehenderunt.
– The Gospel of St John 1:1-5

To see a World in a Grain of Sand
And a Heaven in a Wild Flower….
We are led to Believe a Lie
When we see not Through the Eye…..
God Appears and God is Light
To those poor Souls who dwell in Night
But does a Human Form Display
To those who Dwell in Realms of day.
– William Blake, Auguries of Innocence, 1803

Greta is a poet. Her mother was lost to the sea when she was a child. She too, in the end, is lost to the sea. Her daughter is a photographer, but one who sees with, not through, the eye. Margaret Tait was a poet and a film-maker, a rare combination. Her single feature Blue Black Permanent [1992] takes its title from the name of a variety of ink. Greta, whose life is remembered, and celebrated, in the film, which has the feel and pace of a requiem mass, writes poetry but we never hear or see her poems. We see her notebooks, and the sheet of paper on which she wrote her last poem before her death by sea but that is all. However, though we do not have Greta’s poems, in Margaret Tait’s film, we see, through her eyes, her world; the world which she expressed through those poems we never see, never hear, but know to be. Greta’s world is bounded by mystery, by the frightening death of her mother, taken by the sea, and by her own death by sea. In the opening sequence, set on a beach, Greta watches her daughter, with alarm and fear in her eyes, as she swims, breaking the waves. Her daughter, as she later acknowledges herself, is the child of her father, a landlubber, and will not be taken by the sea.

Although most of the film can be taken as a vision of Greta’s world, part is set in the present day as her daughter Barbara, and her boyfriend, Philip, both no longer young, fail to understand each other and cannot manage to grasp the meaning of Greta’s life; a lack of understanding symbolised by Barbara’s failure to find the notebooks, written in blue black permanent ink, of her mother. The painter, Andrew, whom Greta reveres – an artist who paints the roof tops of Edinburgh, those parts of the city, like its church steeples, closest to the sky, to heaven – is photographed, with, not through, the eye, by Barbara. When she asks him about Greta, her mother, Andrew just says: ‘What a loss’. All the characters in the film, her husband, children, two boys and a girl, her father, the painter and his model, have known, and not really grasped, the reality of Greta, but he, an artist, understands the depth of the grief entailed by such ignorance which can only be expressed by the forlorn words: ‘What a loss’.

The words of the characters are inarticulate, incapable of expressing the beauty which the viewer of the film sees through the lens of Margaret Tait, the eyes of Greta – we see through her eyes, not with them. We are taken into a world of beauty, light and life, of terror and of death. The whole film is haunted by time, the passage of time, the passing of life into death, the transformations of nature by wind, wave and storm. Two women are lost to the sea but we remain on the shore, gazing into the ‘offing’, the place where Greta’s eyes strain, the place into which her soul, in the end, is taken. We are left, having contemplated beauty and time, with truth, the vision of Margaret Tait who, like Greta, and William Blake, is poet who saw through, not with, the eye.

Sarah Neely: “The bits of ourselves we leave behind: an essay in fragments”

This essay takes its title from Margaret Tait’s own writing. It is structured as a kind of a collage—with extracts from a soon to be published academic book of mine,[1] placed alongside fragments of Tait’s writing, and descriptions of some of the more ephemeral objects in the archive, many of which are not always easily explored through traditional academic frameworks.

Margaret Tait, filmmaker and poet, was born in 1918 in Kirkwall, Orkney, on the first floor of the town’s only tenement building, a building which stands across from the St Magnus cathedral. Tait died in 1999, on Mainland Orkney, in Norseman Village, in Cruan, the house she shared with her husband Alex Pirie. It was also the house where she filmed her last film, Garden Pieces, which was completed in 1998.

In her obituary written for Tait, Gerda Stevenson, the actor who played the central character Greta in Tait’s feature film Blue Black Permanent, 1992, refers to Tait as a ‘beachcomber artist’—for her experimental spirit, and way of always searching and looking for what might be found.[2]

Tait’s favourite beach to scour for bits and pieces was at the Brough of Birsay, a tidal island situated off the west mainland of Orkney. When the tide is out you can cross over to the island, or, as Tait did, search for bits of treasure hidden in the rock pools scattered across the causeway.

From these endeavours, Tait created a series of found object collages to which she gave the title ‘these fragments’. Two examples of Tait’s collages (pictured below), feature objects assembled on scraps of thin plywood, each roughly 16 by 12 inches.

Tait’s found object collages – No. 1, The Moon in a Sliver of Glass

No. 1, The Moon in a Sliver of Glass, a tinfoil moon lies between two slips or slivers of clear fragments of sea glass, hovering a few inches above a curve of rusted barbed wire. Further down below, lying on a pound coin-sized dried leaf, Tait’s initials, MCT, are spelled out in tiny bits of wire.

Tait’s found object collages – No. 2, Aspiration

No. 2, Aspiration, dated 1989, features more rusted barbed wire, this time intertwined with blades of dried seagrass, huddled together in a nest-like formation. Hidden inside the nest is a train ticket to Jhansi, dated 1945.

Margaret Tait on the SS Winchester, 1946. Courtesy of the Margaret Tait estate and Orkney Library and Archive.

Margaret Tait trained first as a medical doctor and went on to  join the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1943, serving in India, Sri Lanka and Malaya until 1946. Although Tait demonstrated an interest in photography very early on, her experiences during WWII intensified this impulse. Tait’s experiences overseas fueled her desire to express herself creatively, and her time there formed the basis for a number of scripts and stories she would later develop. The most conspicuous output was a novel, The Lilywhite Boys, which drew from her experiences being stationed in Jhansi, a city in northern India that served as a recuperation point for returning troops.

From The Postscript to the Lilywhite Boys, 1959, unpublished manuscript

I planted bulbs round the Nissen hut in Derby, put up curtains in the stone room of Jhansi, scrubbed clean the bathroom ledges in Jutogh to the eternal shame of my plainsman bearer, kept a white kitten in Katugastota. With it all there was a pain, nostalgia of myself looking for my own. It was not Margaret I mourned for so much then as Margarets I sought, searching in the pricking light of the high mountains and in the downpour of the tropics and in the fog in England. Leaving anything behind and breaking a continuity was a pain, and taking things with me was an equal pain. Out of the tin trunk when I opened it came the same old things I had put in it. Only me, nothing of mine really. The Jhansi curtains hang here in the Rose Street studio now; but they don’t give me pain. I seem to have come to rest at last, to accept what is for me. People describe a feeling they have, as if of having lost something. I don’t remember ever feeling it to be that. I was seeking, but not for something I had lost. For something that was not there yet. For something I had never had. Something of mine – something that would be mine. And I its, I suppose.

Tait worked from her studio on Rose Street in Edinburgh from the 1950s until the mid 1970s, when she returned to Orkney and lived and worked for the remainder of her life. In addition to her one feature-length film, Tait made over thirty short films, across a great many styles and genres: from hand-painted animated films, to intimate portraits, to what she called her film poems. After Tait’s death, many cans of film were transferred from her studio in Orkney to the Scottish Screen Archive in Glasgow, delivered by her husband Alex Pirie.

Margaret Tait, Splashing, 1966. Courtesy of the Margaret Tait estate and National Library of Scotland Moving Image Archive.

Then began the often complicated task of restoring and preserving Tait’s work. Almost all of Tait’s catalogued films were made available through the Archive, with the exception of a few which were missing. During my research, some of these films were found in a garden shed behind Tait and Pirie’s house in Orkney, including Splashing, from 1966, featuring Alex Pirie’s two children and some of the other younger Tait relations. There was also A Pleasant Place, made in 1966, which was scripted by Alex Pirie, and is one of Tait’s few fictional short works. And finally, Palindrome, made in 1964, a filmic palindrome that builds to a centre point before reversing back to where it began.

Other films were uncovered too: short untitled films, even fragments of films, which Tait kept and regularly maintained with an eye to make use of them at some point. Before taking the films to the archive, I made a list of the rough contents.

Some of Tait’s film fragments stored in a biscuit tin.

Boxed from Orkney September 2010

Small green tin – title ‘Doorway’ original (looks like street scene in Italy)

Yellow cine-kodak super-k panchromatic – title ‘First roll ever shot’

Ferrania – 30m/16mm – title ‘My Room – Via Ancona 21’

Silver tin  – Kodachrome – title ‘Edinburgh – Original’

Yellow box – Kodachrome – title ‘The Royal Mile’, Edinburgh – ‘original’

Yellow box – Kodachrome – title ‘Princes Street’, Edinburgh – ‘original’

Small tin – calypso from hand painted neg

Med tin – garden pieces

Med orange plastic – tailpiece

Med orange plastic – garden pieces

Med orange plastic – hugh macdiarmid: a portrait

Small orange plastic – the leaden echo and the golden echo

Med tin – a portrait of ga

Large orange plastic – colour poems

Large orange plastic – place of work

A number of Tait’s diaries and notebooks before their transfer to Orkney Library and Archive.

During my research, Tait’s husband passed on a great number of Tait’s notebooks and diaries to me, all of which are now held by the Orkney archive, and are currently in the process of being catalogued. The contents range from intimate personal reflections to drafts of essays and developmental notes for her films. Going through them was an enjoyable and sometimes intense process. Some of the contents greatly informed my academic book on Tait and some of the entries I felt compelled to write down for no particular reason at all, other than that they resonated with me along more emotional lines than academic ones.

Jan 4, 1997 projected Place of Work (to self only)

Jan 2, 1977 ‘No callers. Finished and wore grey shirt and ‘vest’. Dramatic day outside. colourful sky. a loch frozen in waves.

April 5, 1941 Thomas came for coffee. In afternoon we had a walk to Mermaid’s Cave. I found a pearl in a mussel but Thomas lost it!

A selection of Tait’s notebooks.

Dec 1948 [Notes after viewing My Darling Clementine (dir. John Ford, 1946)]: wonderful shots of that desert (is it Arizona?) that the country near Jhansi used to remind Trevor of [3].

Tait was particularly intrigued by the idea that there was some kind of persistence of a spirit that might remain within a particular place. It is something that was a preoccupation of hers from very early in her life. Writing in a notebook in 1983, Tait recalled an uncanny experience reading Malcolm Lowry’s short story ‘Present Estate of Pompeii’,1959, and discovering that they had shared a similar sensation in front of Stazione Termini in Rome:

Margaret Tait diary, white with watercolour flowers on cover, 1983, pp. 10-11

Reading Lowry about the strange sense of alienation produced by travel somehow salves or balms sensations of that kind I had so often – I remember, in Rome, was it in ’47 or was it, in fact, in ’50, stopping in mid-piazza of the Stazione Termini, struck by ‘what am I doing here’ – ‘what do I think I’m doing?’ etc – I think it was ’47 – first visit – and it was who was I to think that I was there with any sort of logic supporting me? What the hell was I doing? (Perhaps, since I’m sure it must have been ’47  – August – the shade of that feeling lingered around until the following year, to be picked up by Lowry himself (the story set in summer ’48). Do we leave bits of ourselves behind? Or if it was ’50 then he left the feeling behind and I picked it up. And the other thing, of a sort of nostalgia even for something you don’t like, if it’s ending.

Tait’s notion that her experience in the piazza may have been deeply connected to the past and to Lowry’s own feelings of alienation in that place, reflects a sense of the kind of reverberation of place that is explored in many of Tait’s films. This is certainly true in relation to her feature film Blue Black Permanent, 1992. In the film, Tait makes a number of references to Lowry. It also is significant that the locations selected were of personal importance for the film—from the cliffs at Yesnaby to the Mermaid’s Cave on the northeast coast of Mainland Orkney.

Blue Black Permanent (newspaper clipping). Courtesy of the Margaret Tait estate and Orkney Library and Archive.

Tait’s notebook, 1956, p. 86

Reading about Rilke & his sense of the importance of the dead – It’s not so much the dead as dead who are important but the dead as existences which have occurred. That a thing once happened has happened for always. We are the result of people who once lived – a sort of accumulation of the centuries of heredity, evolution, and through records. People who have died young remain complete for us – we see them whole.

A compositional shot list for Blue Black Permanent, courtesy of the Estate of Margaret Tait and Orkney Archive.

From Personae, by Margaret Tait, 1959, unpublished manuscript

People describe a feeling they have, as if of having lost something. I don’t remember ever feeling it to be that. I was seeking, but not for something I had lost. For something that was not there yet. For something I had never had. Something of mine – something that would be mine. And I its, I suppose.

I keep thinking of a poem which comes in lines and constructions. I keep thinking of some sort of thing which will take its form in the formation on page. But it’s probably a film I’m thinking of, really. 

Think in a shape; think in a rhythm. It is something other than thinking; only, don’t reject the rhythm, don’t refuse the shape. When it comes, for you, seize it. It doesn’t do to take something else instead and hope to make something of it, believing it will be more yours because you decided to make it. It’s not that. It’s when it comes, take it, it’s not pick and choose. It is, simply, reply, respond and when it is yours. Leave the rest alone: it is there all right, it won’t waste and it is even related to you in a way. But your own rhythm is for you.  If you are a poet it is for you to reverberate, drum, relay, send messages with, write life certificates with. And love with, whether you are a poet or not a poet your own is for you to love with. Woman, man, place, light, flower, work.

Margaret Tait, Perugia 1952. Courtesy of the Margaret Tait estate and Orkney Library and Archive.

I would like to write a poem carefully laid in place like the table in candle light with rowan jelly matching some other browns. I would like to lay it out square and simple and set in what is needed, completing it in a roundelay. The eye goes round and round it, receiving.  The mind reads. Hear the soft sound of the flame of the candle, watch the exact formation of a word.

I like carelessness too, if there is such a thing. I think I like it. But not carelessness in what needs care, not slipshodness, not triviality, not unseriousness about a poem.

There is a kind of poetry which is essentially incomplete. Any attempt to complete and form it to known ends ruins it. It is not slipshod to revere that incompleteness – that PROMISE. It is the substance of poetry rather than the made thing. It is not really literature: it is the raw magic. It has to go on as it came in, be relayed whole (that is, incomplete) for it is food and will be sustenance of growth.

[1] Neely, S. (2016). Between Categories – The Films of Margaret Tait: Portraits, Poetry, Sound and Place. Oxford: Peter Lang.

[2] Stevenson, G. (1999). ‘The Late Margaret Tait, Film-maker – An appreciation’, The Orcadian, 20 May, p. 10.

[3] While serving in the Royal army medical corps in India, Tait became close with another doctor, Denis Ap Ivor, also known as Trevor, a Welshman who later established a reputation as a modernist composer.

Originally published as Sarah Neely, “The bits of ourselves we leave behind: an essay in fragments,” MAP Magazine, No.37: Footnoting the Archive (2016). Courtesy of Sarah Neely.

Sarah Neely: Margaret Tait Resources


Tait, M. (1959a). origins and elements (poems). Edinburgh: M.C. Tait. Cover by Peter Hollander.

Tait, M. (1959b). Lane Furniture: A Book of Stories. Edinburgh: M.C. Tait.

Tait, M. (1959c). The Grassy Stories: Short Stories for Children. Edinburgh: M.C. Tait.

Tait, M. (1960a). The Hen and the Bees: Legends and Lyrics (poems). Edinburgh: M.C. Tait. Cover by Robin Philipson.

Tait, M. (1960b). Subjects and Sequences (poems). Edinburgh: M.C. Tait.

Tait, M. (2012). Margaret Tait: Poems, Stories and Writings. S. Neely (ed.). Manchester: Carcanet.



Zimmerman, P. (1997). ‘Democracy and Cinema: A History of Amateur Film’. In N. Kapstein (ed.), Jubilee Book: Essays on Amateur Film, pp. 73-80. Charleroi, Belgium: Association Européene Inédits.

Tait, M. (1957a). ‘Close-up of Rose St’, Scotland’s Magazine, 53 (12) pp. 8-11.

Tait, M. (1957b). ‘Making Films About Scotland’, The Scotsman. 2 February, p. 7.

Tait, M. (1961). ’The Day I Bathed in the Roman Baths’, Edinburgh Evening News, 6 November, p. 3.

Tait, M. (1988). ‘Orkney film maker on tour’, The Orcadian, 19 May, p. 7.

Tait, M. (1988), statement on six films selected by filmmaker as ‘models for a representation of Scotland on Screen’. In Kenny Mathieson (ed.), Desperately Seeking Cinema?, Glasgow Film Theatre, May-Oct, pp. 83-4.

Tait, M. (1992). ‘Feature: New Scottish Filmmakers’, Margaret Tait in her own words, The List, 10-23 April.

Tait, M. (1996).  ‘George Mackay Brown Remembered’, Chapman  (84), pp. 33-4.

Tait, M. (1997). ‘Film-poem or Poem-film: A Few Notes about Film and Poetry’, Poem Film Film Poem, No.2, November, pp. 4-5.

Tait, M. (1999). ‘Garden Pieces, Their Slow Evolution’, Poem Film Film Poem, No. 5, December, pp. 1-3.

Tait, M. (1999). ‘Films by Margaret Tait’, statement Time Out, 18 April 1980, p. 45.


Anthologies including Tait’s poetry

Fraser, E. (ed.)  (1975). Scottish Love Poems: A Personal Anthology. Edinburgh: Canongate.

Smith, A. (ed.) (2006). The Reader. London: Constable.


Bibliography of works on Tait

Alegeri, O. (2015). ‘The Raven versus the seagull (ornithology and other sounds in Tait)’, Gallina Significa miel: Poemas escogidos y ensayos sobre cine de Margaret Tait/ Hen Means Honey: Chosen poems and essays about cinema by Margaret Tait, Punto de Vista Collection, Number 9, International Documentary Film Festival of Navarra, pp. 113-4.

Aurand, U. (2004). Contribution reflecting on her visit to Tait in Orkney. In Peter Todd (ed.), ‘Remembering Margaret Tait: A Deeper Knowledge Than Wisdom’, Vertigo, 2 (7), p. 54.

Aurand, U. (1994). ‘Margaret Tait’, Margaret Tait Film Tour Programme Brochure. Berlin: Ute Aurand.

Aurand, U. (1999). ‘Die Filmpoetin Margaret Tait ist gestorben’, Film, No. 6, pp. 4-5.

B.A. (1954). ‘Celluloid Experiment’, The Scotsman, n.p.

Bell, E. (2012). ‘Experiment and Nation in the 1960s’. In Glenda Norquay (ed.), The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Women’s Writing, pp 122-9. Edinburgh: EUP.

Bell, G. (2000). ‘A Reel Visionary’, The Scotsman, 27 September, p.14.

Brown, G. M. (1979). ‘Under Brinkie’s Brae’, The Orcadian, 13 Dec, p. 6.

Bruce, D. (1996). ‘Rose Street: Margaret Tait and Women in Scottish Film’, Scotland – the Movie, pp. 108-9. London: Polygon.

Burch, N. (1982). ‘Narrative/Diegesis-Thresholds, limits’, Screen, 23 (2), 16-33.

C.P. (1954). ‘Rose Street Film Festival’, Edinburgh Evening Dispatch, August, n.p.

Clark, G. (2004). ‘Aspects of Change: The 58th Edinburgh International Film Festival’, Senses of the Cinema, no. 33, Oct-Dec, <http://archive.sensesofcinema.com/contents/festivals/04/33/edinburgh2004.html > accessed 24 November 2010.

Cochrane, A. (2007). ‘If you really look’, review of Margaret Tait’s Selected Films 1952-1976, PN Review 174, 33 (4), p. 78.

Colin, B. (1993). ‘Tidemarks’, The List, 23 April-6 May, p. 27.

Comino, J. (1983). ‘Place of Work’, Monthly Film Bulletin, 50 (588), p. 285.

Cook, B. and Todd, P. (2000). ‘Margaret Tait’, National Film Theatre Programme Booklet, October, pp. 34-5.

Crichton, T. (2000). ‘Film Honour for Orkney’s Movie Poet’, Sunday Herald (Glasgow), 17 September, p.10.

Cumming, L. (2009). ‘Poetry in motion pictures’, The Observer, ‘Review’, 8 November, p. 14.

Curtis, D.  (1971).  Experimental Cinema: a fifty year evolution. New York: Universe.

Curtis, D. (1999). ‘Britain’s Oldest Experimentalist…Margaret Tait’, Vertigo, no.9, 62-3.

Curtis, D. (2004). ‘In her own words’. In P. Todd and B. Cook (eds.), Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, pp. 77-98. London: LUX.

Daily American (1952). ‘Perugia Film Real Triumph for Students’, ‘Travel Supplement’, 31 March, p. 1.

Didcock, B. (2009). ‘Setting the art world alight’, The Sunday Herald, ‘The Arts’, 11 October, pp. 4-7.

Dunnett, N. (1992).  ‘New director makes feature debut at age of 73’, The Sunday Times, Scotland, ‘Arts’, 3 May, p. 4.

Elley, D. (1992). ‘Blue Black Permanent’, review, Variety, 14th December, p. 47.

Evans, G. (1999). ‘Only Connect: The Secret Art of Film Poems’, Filmwaves, Autumn, 28-30.

Evans, G. (2004). ‘Where I am is here: a patchwork for Margaret Tait’. In P. Todd and B. Cook (eds.), Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, pp. 35-50. London: LUX.

Evans, G. (2007). ‘Tait modern’, Vertigo, 3 (6), n.p.

Ewan, E., Innes, S., Reynolds, S., Pipes. R. (eds.) (2007). The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women. Edinburgh: EUP.

Fabig, M. (1987).  ‘Report about Women Filmmakers in Independent Film – Germaine Dulac, Maya Deren, Margaret Tait’, unpublished. Hamburg: Monika Fabig.

Field, S. (2005). ‘Margaret Tait: ‘Celebrating the Everyday, the Commonplace’, Cinematexas 10, 14-18 September,  <http://cinematexas.org/festival/artist/html?id=579> accessed 16 January 2006.

Film User.  (1955). ‘Portrait of Ga’, review, 9 (100), p. 108.

Film User. (1957). ‘The Drift Back’, review, 11 (130), p. 340.

Finch, D. (1988). ‘Film-Maker as Poet: Films by Stan Brakhage, Bruce Baillie and Margaret Tait’, catalogue, European Media Art Festival (1st-11th September), Osnabruck.

Finch, Z.  (2015).  ‘Margaret Tait’. In B. Nowlan and Z. Finch (eds.), Directory of World Cinema: Scotland, pp. 84-9. Bristol and Chicago: Intellect.

French, P. (1993). ‘Ripening Parable of Perfection’, Observer, 4 April, p. 54.

Francke, L. (1993). ‘Sea Song’, Every Woman, April, p. 23.

Garratt, C. (1989). ‘Margaret Tait’s Films’, catalogue, The Celtic Mirror Festival, Falmouth, Kernow, 10-12 November, p.4.

Goode, I. (2005). ‘Scottish cinema and Scottish imaginings: Blue Black Permanent and Stella Does Tricks’, Screen, 46 (2), pp. 235-9.

Gough-Yates, K. (1983). ‘Moving Pictures’, Art Monthly, June, p. 33.

Gray, Y. (2007). ‘Margaret Tait, Orkney poet and film-maker remembered’, review of P.Todd and B. Cook (eds.), Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, Northwords Now.

Gray, Y. (2006). ‘Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader’, review, Media Education Journal, 39, pp. 38-9.

Grierson, J. (1941). ‘Art in Action’, John Grierson Archive, University of Stirling, G4/21/4, p.2.

Grigor, M. (1970). 24th Edinburgh Film Festival Brochure, pp. 52-54, reprinted in P. Todd and B. Cook (eds.), Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, p. 141. London: LUX.

Grigor, M. (1999). ‘Margaret Tait’, obituary, The Independent, 12 May, p.6.

Hammond, W. (1993). ‘Blue Black Permanent: NFT’, Time Out, 31 March-7 April, p. 53.

Heddle, D. (2005). ‘Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader’, review, Scottish Studies Review, Autumn, pp. 110-111.

Heriot, N. (1957). ‘Rose Street comes to life—for 20 minutes’, The Bulletin, 10 July, p. 10.

Hunter, A. (1992). ‘Blue Black Permanent’, Screen International, 19 June, pp. 20-1.

Issacs, J. (1989). Storm Over 4: A Personal Account. London: Weidenfield & Nicholson, p.173.

Jackson, K. (1992) ‘The early promise of late starters’, The Independent, ‘Arts’, 17 Aug, p. 10.

Johnston, S. (1993). ‘Blue Black Permanent’, review, The Independent, 2 April, p.16.

Krikorian, T. (1979).  ‘Some notes on an Ephemeral Art’, Exhibition Catalogue Third Eye Centre, Glasgow.

Krikorian, T. (1983). ‘On the Mountain and Land Makar: Landscape and Townscape in Margaret Tait’s Work’, Undercut, No.7/8, pp. 17-19.

Kirkorian, T. (1996). ‘Margaret Tait’.  In D. Curtis (ed.), A Directory of British Film and Video Artists, pp. 190-1. Luton: University of Luton and The Arts Council of England.

Krikorian, T. (2003). ‘On The Mountain and Land Makar: Landscape and Townscape in Margaret Tait’s Work’. In N. Danino and M. Mazière (eds.), The Undercut Reader: Critical Writings on Artists’ Film and Video, pp. 103-5. London: Wallflower.

Leggett, M. (1980). ‘On the Mountain’, review, Time Out, 18 April, p.45.

Leggett, M. (1996). ‘Margaret Tait’. In D. Curtis (ed.), A Directory of British Film & Video Artists, pp. 190-2. Luton: John Libby Media/London: Arts Council of England.

Leggett, M. (n.d.) ‘The Autonomous Film-maker: Margaret Tait: Films and Poems – a correspondence between Mike Leggett and Margaret Tait’ [edited by Richard Kwietniowksi – unpublished]. British Artists’ Film and Video Study Collection, Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design.

Le Grice, M. (1975). ‘First Festival of Independent British Cinema’, Studio International, 189 (975), p. 225.

Le Grice, M. (1979). ‘Programme notes’. Film London: 3rd Avant-garde International Festival. London: NFT.

M., L. (2012). ‘Margaret Tait: Poems, Stories and Writings’, review, Scottish Review of Books, 8 (2), 27.

MacDiarmid, H. (1998). ‘Intimate Film Making in Scotland’, Scottish Field (1960), In A. Calder, G. Murray, and A. Riach (eds.), Hugh MacDiarmid: The Raucle Tongue, Hitherto Uncollected Prose, Vol. III, pp. 417-21. Manchester: Carcanet.

MacNeacail, A. (1999).  ‘primula scotia at yesnaby’ (for Margaret Tait: 1918-1999), poem, The Orcadian, 20 May, p. 10.

MacPherson, R. (2015). ‘Cultural Crossover: Radical and Engaged Cinema’. In B. Nowlan and Z. Finch (eds.), Directory of World Cinema: Scotland, pp. 31-45. Bristol and Chicago: Intellect.

Malcolm, D. (1993). ‘Blue Black Permanent’, review, The Guardian, 1 April, p. 5.

Maxford, H. (1993). ‘Blue Black Permanent’, review, What’s On In London, 7 April, p. 35.

Mayer, S. (2014). ‘Origins and Elements: On Margaret Tait’s Disappearing Trick’, POST 4, pp. 17-32.

McBain, J. and Russell, A. (2004). ‘Preserving the Margaret Tait Film Collection’. In P. Todd and B. Cook (eds.), Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, pp. 101-9. .London: LUX.

McCaffery, R. and Van de Peer, S. (2014). ‘Acknowledged Legislators: ‘Lived experience’ in Scottish Poetry Films’, International Journal of Scottish Theatre and Screen, 7 (2), pp. 5-30.

McKibbin, T. (2002). ‘Scottish Cinema: A Victim Culture?’, Cencrastus, no. 73, pp. 25-29.

McKibbin, T. (2007). ‘The Passing Present’, Anon, 5, pp. 65-77.

Mengham, R. (2007). ‘Review – Margaret Tait’, Art Monthly no. 310, p. 39.

Miller, M. (2004). ‘Hold it – Hold it simple – Hold it direct’: Margaret Tait’s reverberant notes’, Filmwaves, 26 (4), pp. 30-5.

Miller, M. (2005a). ‘Re: Margaret Tait: Reverberation, Recognition, Rediscovery’, The Drouth, Spring, <http://www.thedrouth.org/storage/The%20Drouth%2015-1.pdf > accessed 20 May 2011.

Miller, M. (2005b). ‘…quite unique’: Reviving Margaret Tait, in conversation with Peter Todd’, The Drouth, Spring, <http://www.thedrouth.org/storage/The%20Drouth%2015-1.pdf > accessed 20 May 2011.

Miller, M. (2006/7). ‘Recycled, Re-imagined and Resurrected: The Return of Margaret Tait’, Roughcuts, Dec/Jan, p. 15.

Moir, J. (1993). ‘First Person Highly Singular’, The Guardian, 31 March, pp. 8-9.

Morgan, E. (1961). ‘Who Will Publish Scottish Poetry’, review of origins and elements, New Saltire 2, November, pp. 51-56.

Morgan, E. (1992). ‘Speaking in Tongues’, review of The Faber Book of Twentieth-Century Poetry,  The Sunday Times, 19 July, n.p.

Nairn, E. (1955). ‘Stills from Orquil Burn and Happy Bees’, poem, 2nd Rose Street Film Festival leaflet, Edinburgh.

Neely, S. (2008a). ‘Contemporary Scottish Cinema’. In N. Blain and D. Hutchison (eds.), The Media in Scotland, pp. 151-65. Edinburgh: EUP.

Neely, S. (2008b). ‘Stalking the image: Margaret Tait and Intimate Filmmaking Practices’, Screen, 49 (2), pp. 216-221.

Neely, S and Riach, A. (2009). ‘Demons in the Machine: cinema and modernism in twentieth-century Scotland’. In J. Murray, F. Farley and R. Stoneman (eds.), New Scottish Cinema, pp. 1-19. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Neely, S. (2010).‘”Ploughing a lonely furrow”: Margaret Tait and “professional” filmmaking practices in 1950s Scotland’. In I. Craven (ed.), Movies on Home Ground: Explorations in Amateur Cinema, pp. 301-26. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Neely, S. (2012). ‘Margaret Tait: Film as poetry, or reading in the dark’, Scottish Poetry Library blog, <http://www.scottishpoetrylibrary.org.uk/connect/blog/category/margaret-tait> accessed 19 November 2015.

Neely, S. (2014). ‘”My Heart Beat for the Wilderness”: Exploring with the Camera in the Work of Isobel Wylie Hutchison, Jenny Gilbertson, Margaret Tait, and other Twentieth-Century Scottish Women Filmmakers’. In Anna Stenport and Scott MacKenzie (eds.), Films on Ice, pp. 299-309. Edinburgh: EUP.

Neely, S. (2015a). ‘Orphans of a GENERATION: Preserving the legacy of Margaret Tait’, MAP Magazine, <http://mapmagazine.co.uk/9808/orphans-generation/> accessed 19 November 2015.

Neely, S. (2015b). ‘Objects Found: Locating a tradition of Scottish women filmmakers’. In Tina Fiske (ed.), Ripples in the Pond, pp. 43-9. Glasgow: Thinking Collections, Gallery of Modern Art Glasgow.

Neely, S. (2015c). ‘Margaret Tait’s “Poetry of Presence’”, Gallina Significa miel: Poemas escogidos y ensayos sobre cine de Margaret Tait/ Hen Means Honey: Chosen poems and essays about cinema by Margaret Tait, Punto de Vista Collection, Number 9, International Documentary Film Festival of Navarra, pp. 114-9.

Neely, S. (2015d). Archivos de la filmoteca: Margaret Tait y el ‘Poeta en Nueva York’ de Lorca”, Contraluz, magazine article published in English and Spanish, pp. 72-3.

Nicolson, A. (2004). Contribution reflecting on her visit to Tait in Orkney, in P. Todd (ed.) ‘Remembering Margaret Tait: A Deeper Knowledge Than Wisdom’, Vertigo, 2 (7), 53.

The Orcadian. (1977). ‘Three Jubilee Film Shows’, 22 September 1977, p. 3.

The Orkney Herald  (1957a). ‘Orcadian’s Film for Edinburgh Festival?’, 25 July, p. 4.

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P.,C. (1954). ‘Rose Street Film Festival’, Edinburgh Evening Dispatch, August, n.p.

Parker, K. (2014). ‘Blobs in Tartan Colours: Margaret Tait’s Painted Eightsome’, Frames Cinema Journal, October 2014, pp. 1-18.

Petrie, D. (2000). Screening Scotland. London: British Film Institute.

Petrie, D. (2013).’Planting the Seeds of Ambition: Scottish Film in the 1960s’, Scottish Cultural Review of Language and Literature, vol. 20, p. 243.

Pirie, A. (2000). ‘Margaret Tait Film Maker 1918-1999: Indications Influence Outcomes’, Poem Film Film Poem, No. 6, 1-12.

Price, R. (2011). ‘Margaret Tait: Film-maker and Poet’, PS, no. 7, pp. 22-28.

Ramaswamy, C. (2006). ‘Tait gallery restored’, Scotland on Sunday, ‘Arts’, 12 November.

Riach, A. (2009). ‘Tait’s MacDiarmid’, poem. In Homecoming: New Poems 2001-2009, p. 164. Edinburgh: Luath Press.

Redding, J. M and Brownworth, V. (1997) ‘Margaret Tait’ in Film Fatales, pp. 109-111. Seattle: Seal Press.

Reyner, J. L. (1970). ‘Margaret Tait’ in Continental Film Review, November, 9.

Reyner, J.L. (1999).  ‘Margaret Tait’, obituary, The Guardian, 13 May, p. 22.

Reynolds, L. (2001). ‘Colour Poems’, Poem Film Film Poem, no. 9, pp. 1-2.

Reynolds, L. (2004). ‘Margaret Tait: marks of time’, P. Todd and B. Cook (eds), Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, pp. 57-69. London: LUX.

Roddick, N. (2015). ‘Tait of Grace’, Sight and Sound, 25 (6), p. 54.

Romer, M. (2006). ‘Poetry in Blue Black Permanent: Three footnotes to Margaret Tait’s film’, Cencrastus, no. 82, pp. 8-13.

Romer, M. (2011). ‘Malcolm Lowry’s Influence on Orcadian Filmmaker Margaret Tait’, Firminists, No. 2, pp. 9-16.

Rosie, G. (2004). ‘A glimpse of rare talent’ The Sunday Times, 22 August, n.p.

Russell, W. (1993).  ‘When Second Thoughts Are a Bad Idea’, The Herald, 24 April, p. 24.

Sandhu, S. (2004). ‘Unique Vision of a Film Poet, Daily Telegraph, 23 August, p. 17.

Sandhu, S. (2005). ‘Open Connection’, review of Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, New Statesman, 7 February, <www.newstatesman.com/200502070046> accessed 24 November 2010.

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Shand, R. (2007). ‘A Review of Subjects and Sequences: A Margaret Tait Reader’, The Moving Image: The Journal of the Association of Moving Image Archivists, 7 (1), pp. 107-110.

Shure, R. (1972). ‘The Long Light Days of Margaret Tait’, Umbrella, published by Richard Demarco Gallery, 1 (2), n.p.

Smith, A. (2004). ‘The Margaret Tait years’, P. Todd and B. Cook (eds.), Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader, pp. 7-27. London: LUX.

Smith, A. (2004). ‘Margaret Tait’, LUXONLINE tour, <www.luxonline.org.uk>accessed 24 November 2010.

Sparrow, F. (2001). ‘Garden Pieces’, Poem Film Film Poem, no. 9, pp. 1-2.

Speranza, R. S. (2003). The film-poem and its development: poetry and film from 1910-2003, PhD thesis, English Literature, Sheffield.

Stevenson, G. (1999a). ‘The Late Margaret Tait, Film-maker- An appreciation’, The Orcadian, 20 May, p. 10.

Stevenson, G. (1999b). ‘Margaret Tait’, obituary, The Scotsman, 5 May, n.p.

Sussex, E. (1970). ‘Margaret Tait, Film-maker’, The Financial Times, 9 September, p. 3.

Sussex, E. (1999). ‘Margaret Tait’, obituary, The Guardian, 13 May, p. 22.

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Today’s Cinema. (1957). ‘Experimental Film in the Orkneys’, 88 (7765), p. 4.

Todd, P. (2003). ‘The Margaret Tait Project’, Media Education Journal, Issue 33, pp. 27-30.

Todd, P. and Cook, B. (eds.) (2004). Subjects and Sequences: a Margaret Tait Reader. London: LUX.

Todd, P. (2004a). ‘Bibliography on Margaret Tait’.  In Experimental Film: 16+ Study Guide, pp. 9-11. London: BFI.

Todd, P. (2004b). ‘Remote Lives? …Looking Beyond the Canon; The Need For Images That Are Local’, Vertigo, 2 (6), p. 56.

Todd, P. (ed.) (2004c). ‘Remembering Margaret Tait: A Deeper Knowledge Than Wisdom’, Vertigo,  2 (7), pp. 53-55.

Todd, P. (2004d). ‘Margaret Tait’, LUXONLINE essay, <www.luxonline.org.uk> accessed 24 November 2010.

Todd, P. (2009) ‘A Future Led by Looking’. In A. Peebles and L. Watts (eds.) Orkney Futures, p. 51. Orkney: Brae Editions.

Todd, P. (2015), ‘”Unofficial and individual”, the films of Margaret Tait’, Gallina Significa miel: Poemas escogidos y ensayos sobre cine de Margaret Tait/ Hen Means Honey: Chosen poems and essays about cinema by Margaret Tait, Punto de Vista Collection, Number 9, International Documentary Film Festival of Navarra, pp. 120-7.

Winn, J. (2002). ‘Preserving the Handpainted Films of Margaret Tait’, MA Dissertation, Norwich, 2002 (unpublished), <http://tait.josswinn.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/josswinn_dissertation.pdf,> accessed 20 May 2011.

Wolfe-Murray, A. (1993). ‘Blue Black Permanent’, The Scotsman Weekender, 24th April, n.p.

Wood, S. (2004). Contribution on A Portrait of Ga. In P. Todd (ed.), ‘Remembering Margaret Tait: A Deeper Knowledge Than Wisdom’, Vertigo, 2 (7), p. 55.

Yates, R. (1993). ‘Blue Black Permanent’, review, Sight and Sound, April, p.43.

List of resources first published in Sarah Neely, Between Categories: Margaret Tait: Poetry, Portraits, Sound and Place (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016).

Sarah Neely: “Archivos de la filmoteca: Margaret Tait y el ‘Poeta en Nueva York’ de Lorca”


Sarah Neely, “Archivos de la filmoteca: Margaret Tait y el ‘Poeta en Nueva York’ de Lorca,” Contraluz, magazine article published in English and Spanish, 34 (2015): 72–73.

National Film Theatre programme brochure, October 2000

British Film Institute, National Film Theatre programme brochure, October 2000. Courtesy of Peter Todd and the BFI.

Robert Shure: “The Long Light Days of Margaret Tait”


Robert Shure, “The Long Light Days of Margaret Tait,” Umbrella, published by Richard Demarco Gallery, Vol. 1, 2 (1972). Courtesy of British Artists’ Film and Video Study Collection, Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts, London, with thanks to Steven Ball.

Murray Grigor: Margaret Tait at EIFF 1970


Murray Grigor: “Margaret Tait,” Edinburgh International Film Festival brochure (1970). Courtesy of Murray Grigor and British Artists’ Film and Video Study Collection, Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts, London, with thanks to Steven Ball.

Tamara Krikorian: “On the Mountain and Land Makar: Landscape and Townscape in Margaret Tait’s Work”


Tamara Krikorian, “On the Mountain and Land Makar: Landscape and Townscape in Margaret Tait’s Work,” Undercut 7/8 (1983). Courtesy of Ifor Davies and British Artists’ Film and Video Study Collection, Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts, London, with thanks to Steven Ball.

Alex Pirie: “‘Margaret Tait Film Maker 1918-1999: Indications Influence Outcomes”


Alex Pirie, “Margaret Tait Film Maker 1918-1999: Indications Influences Outcomes” Poem Film Film Poem (2000). Courtesy of the Margaret Tait estate and British Artists’ Film and Video Study Collection, Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts, London, with thanks to Steven Ball.

Gerda Stevenson: ‘Orquil Burn (after a film by Margaret Tait)’

I rise in a quiet place, tranquil, like my name,
where the lone owl swoops above constellations
of bog cotton and sphagnum moss; water drips
from roots, and I trickle by gravity’s instinct,
meander through abandoned peat banks
to curlew’s call, past orchids and butterwort,
no thought of my own utility;

till I’m commandeered –
diverted to power a mill,
a handy back-up plan
when the wind blows herself out,
and for a while Orkney lies still.
I’m bridged, dammed and fenced –
barbed wire marks men’s borders;
even my name is implicated:
‘liquor’ lurks in its letters
as I’m piped to the distillery.
I learn to flow the man-made way
in straight lines, by Caldale Camp,
its concrete wartime hearths
bereft of walls in desolate ranks,
declaring dereliction to the sky;

But flowers still come to soften my banks,
yellow mimulus and meadow sweet,
and boys gather round me to play
in the ‘deep places’, they say, deft fingers
weaving iris-leaf boats – green vessels gliding slow,
stalking each other to childish cries of ‘Torpedo!’ –
echo of battles a stone’s throw from my estuary,
where I plunge over rocks into the tidal to and fro,
and mingle among history’s wreckage
in salty Scapa Flow.

Commissioned by Alchemy Film & Arts for the the ninth edition of Alchemy Film and Moving Image Festival (2019).

Margaret Tait reading from The Hen and the Bees (1960)



‘The Scale of Things’



‘Spring 1958’

‘Queen of Fact and Story’

‘Queen on Horseback’

‘The Queen and Her Courtiers’

‘Storytelling Queen’

‘Warrior Queen’

‘Sea Queen’

‘Queen’s King and King’s Queen’

‘The Roving King’s Queen’

‘Sea-Going King’s Queen’

‘The Queen and All the Children’

‘Queen Alone’

‘The Princess’s Activities’

‘A Queen in Prison’

‘The King’s Discovery’



‘Loki Beside the Standing Stone’


‘Sound of Children Sobbing’

Courtesy of Orkney Library and Archive. The recordings were digitised by Sarah Neely in 2011 with support from the Arts and Humanities Research Council, AH/I002847/1.

Margaret Tait reading from Origins and Elements (1959)



‘A Fire’


‘Lezione di Recitazione’

‘Sprung Sonnet’



‘Reading about Rimbaud’

Courtesy of Orkney Library and Archive. The recordings were digitised by Sarah Neely in 2011 with support from the Arts and Humanities Research Council, AH/I002847/1.

Margaret Tait reading from Subjects and Sequences (1960)

‘Standing Stones of Stenness’


‘You Heard What the Minister Said, Pet’



‘Paul Delvaux’



Courtesy of Orkney Library and Archive. The recordings were digitised by Sarah Neely in 2011 with support from the Arts and Humanities Research Council, AH/I002847/1.

Margaret Tait: “Desperately Seeking Cinema”


Margaret Tait, “Desperately Seeking Cinema,” Glasgow Film Theatre Brochure (May – October 1988). Courtesy of Orkney Library and Archive.

Margaret Tait: “Close-up of Rose Street”


Margaret Tait, “Close-up of Rose Street,” Scotland’s Magazine (1957). Courtesy of Orkney Library and Archive.

Margaret Tait: “The Day I Bathed in the Roman Baths”


Margaret Tait, “The Day I Bathed in the Roman Baths,” Edinburgh Evening News (6 November 1961). Courtesy of Orkney Library and Archive.

Ian Goode: “Scottish cinema and Scottish imaginings: ‘Blue Black Permanent’ and ‘Stella Does Tricks'”

Recent accounts of Scottish cultural expression suggest that one of the specific and most distinctive and productive characteristics lies in the ability to express interiority. In a survey of twentieth century Scottish literature, for example, Roderick Watson identifies ‘the penchant for dealing with other realms, mixing metaphysical questions and fantastic inner experience.’[1] While the beginning of Duncan Petrie’s seminal account of Scottish cinema makes a similar claim through Adrienne Scullion’s contention that:

‘the role of mythology, legend and fable, the Gothic, the supernatural and the unconscious within the development of the Scottish imagination is not a symptom of psychosis but a sophisticated engagement with the fantastic that other cultures might celebrate as magic realism.’[2]

In the light of such positive claims for Scottish cultural expression, this essay will enquire how and where this imaginary capacity to render inner experience is registered in recent Scottish cinema.

Two recent films, which offer the opportunity to pursue such questions, are Blue Black Permanent (1992), written and directed by veteran experimental film-maker Margaret Tait, and Stella Does Tricks (1996) scripted by the Scottish novelist A.L. Kennedy and directed by Polish born Coky Giedroyc. Both films are the creative vision of women, feature female protagonists, and address the respective Orkney and Glasgow childhoods of these protagonists from the present perspective of an adult. The articulation of the recalled past in these films represents an expression through film, of the inner experience of the central characters with a particular engagement with the passage from childhood to adulthood that Phil Powrie has categorised as ‘the rite of passage film.’[3] John Caughie has argued that – Scottish films about childhood such as Venus Peter are often marked by a backward look and tend to express a preoccupation with the feeling of loss that inhibits representations of Scotland.[4] The reproduction of longing, loss and elegiac nostalgia that marks such films is staged within a topos of home, family and community, and is often guaranteed by the figure of the mother. The female protagonists and imaginary dimensions that characterise Blue Black Permanent and Stella Does Tricks however, can be examined as a potential challenge to this formation. The summoning of the past through the flashbacks of female protagonists foregrounds the enunciation of gendered subjectivities. These are demonstrative of the capacity to articulate inner experience through film where the linguistic terms associated with the medium are not singularly contained – as they are in the form of a book.

Blue Black Permanent and Stella Does Tricks are not set in a restored and reconstructed past, but the protagonists in each return to a remembered past through the use of the flashback which Maureen Turim defines as:

‘a privileged moment in unfolding that juxtaposes different moments of temporal reference. A juncture is wrought between present and past and two concepts are implied in this juncture: memory and history.’[5]

For the women in these films – Barbara and Stella, the desire to return to the past is motivated by a need to work through, as daughters and adults, their personal histories via  remembered relationships with mothers or fathers. Barbara in Blue Black Permanent endeavours to find out why family history appears to repeat itself as her mother and grand mother apparently took their own lives by drowning, while Stella in Stella Does Tricks recalls the past as a means of both coping with both her present predicament as a prostitute in London and her abuse as a child by her father. In both films the production of the subject, and the authorship and enunciation of women’s subjectivity is significant. The lengthy flashbacks of Blue Black Permanent depict Barbara’s mother, – Greta, an aspiring poet, cultivating a meditative connection with water and the Orkney landscape. These flashbacks are replete with images that reflexively invite the spectator to investigate the problem of rendering a poet’s consciousness of place and environment through image and sound rather than words. This concern with the thresholds of language and medium was an enduring interest of Margaret Tait, for whom, as Penny Thomson observes, there was ‘only a mechanical difference between paintbrush, typewriter and sixteen millimetre camera.’[6]

As Tait’s first and only feature length film, Blue Black Permanent represents a literalisation of her ongoing concern with the relation between word and image, and between poetry and film – not least because the cast of characters in the film include a poet, a painter and a photographer. Greta describes herself as needing her domestic life as a mother as well as her creative life as a poet.  However, the flashbacks to Greta’s past emanate from the present of her grown up daughter Barbara and as the narrative develops these become more than the sum of a daughter’s memories in serving to reconstruct the life of a mother before she took her own life by walking into the sea. Greta becomes a subject within a restored as well as a remembered past. This is illustrated by Greta’s reaction to being outside in a heavy rainstorm is a state of reverie that she endeavours to convert into written words. She describes her situation to her painter friend Andrew as being “torn between languages”. Moreover Tait’s tendency to cut away from the speaker to the artefacts and materials of expression such as the trace of watered down paint splashed on to a wall above a sink, the paintings mounted on a wall, or the books and objects that line a shelf, further underlines her concern with expressive form and its materiality. None of Greta’s poetry is quoted, rather it is the sources of poetic expression that the film endeavours to make visible. She describes her dreams as being “like the sea” and sleep being “like the sea” and consequently this functions as a recurring image as Tait strives to give visible expression to the connection between inner consciousness and outward expression – a process Greta articulates as wrestling with available language as she struggles to make words out of sensory experience and subconscious images.



Greta’s need for domestic life to anchor her is demonstrated when she returns to see her father in Orkney and revisits the location of her childhood. This journey home also represents a return to the place where her own mother, Barbara’s grandmother, was also swept into the sea and drowned – a tragic scenario that Greta is fated to repeat. Greta isn’t necessarily killed by domesticity but what apparently ends her life is a consequence of her subjective desire to reconcile her creative life and her domestic life. The extended sequence of shots of the Orkney coastline and sea that ends Blue Black Permanent suggests that what remains is the relative permanence of creative endeavour. Greta leaves behind the poetry that was formed out of her response to her natural surroundings. The cost of expressing inner experience is the unconscious reproduction of the death drive that saw Greta’s mother take her own life too. The balance that she desired between expressing herself through writing and her domestic life ultimately eludes her.

Barbara’s investigation of her mother’s past meets the present when she consciously makes a statement that arrests the impending repetition of history. After a dream of her own she declares: “I know now, I know what it is, it’s not just finding an identity, not that, forget I’m my mother’s daughter, I’m me, me”. Through the act of remembering Barbara doesn’t resolve the narrative question of why her mother took her life but she does assert the necessity of relinquishing the past rather than mourning its loss, in order to realize her own identity in the present.

Stella Does Tricks concerns the experience of a young London prostitute whose past is located in Glasgow where she was raised by her father Francis and aunt Aileen. Stella’s father, a stand up comedian, had promised her that he would become famous and they would go to London together. What happens instead is that this dream is unfulfilled. Moreover it is revealed that Francis sexually abused Stella as a child, something she clearly holds as responsible for her present predicament. At the same time her relationship with Francis is depicted as complex and ambivalent, in addition to being abusive, he is also loving and nurtures Stella’s own capacity for fantasy. Stella’s memories have more than one function, her inner life involving a combination of remembering, fantasy and dream. She uses her past to suggest a possible means of escaping her present – her pimp describes this as “going away in her head” during her encounters with clients. But Stella also modifies the past through her imagination, she fuses past and present when she imagines introducing her clients to her Dad and the moralistic and frigid Aileen. She also imagines a harrowing scene in which her Dad, in his role as a comedian, addresses a Catholic congregation through making jokes about his daughter’s rape. In Stella Does Tricks the past is summoned and imagined as a means to hold it to account and suggest a more positive future. It is both a refuge from the reality of the present and a cause of her present situation. Stella’s desire to hold her past and its consequences to account becomes a quest when she returns to its source in Glasgow. Indeed, the most positive moments of the film show Stella leaving her pimp and returning to Glasgow to enact her revenge on Francis and Aileen before returning to London with the desire to change her life. Douglas Gifford describes the typical protagonist of A.L. Kennedy’s writing as ‘a traumatised mind using displacement and fantastic imagination to simultaneously avoid and redeem the damage from which it hides.’[7] The difference in Stella Does Tricks is that Kennedy’s ability as a writer to combine the imagining of psychological thresholds is balanced by the director’s commitment to making explicit reference to the reality of women’s experience.[8] Stella’s subjectivity does as Charlotte Brunsdon suggests represent a departure from ‘the tradition of naturalist representation of the prostitute as victim.’[9] However, ultimately Stella is unable to hide, she is unable to get away. Even after she has avenged her past abuse, she continues to find herself in a cycle of circumstances that lead to further abuse by men as her partner uses her to feed his drug habit.

Having endeavoured to show Stella’s inner experience of the past and her attempt to overcome her past the film reaches the expressive limits of her subjectivity in the ambiguous final scene. Stella is shown addressing an unseen audience from a stage, recounting in the manner of stand up her own experiences at the hands of men. She ends her confessional/performance with a meta-commentary on the artifice that separates reality from fictional storytelling:  “I’m lying it’s a story, but that’s why I’m here, to tell you stories. So picture this scene”. This is followed by a cut to a blank screen that carries a caption that highlights the truth claim of the documentary research that motivated the making of the fictional film: “with thanks to the girls we met in Glasgow, Manchester and London whose lives inspired the making of this film”. The accompanying first person words of the closing song “all of this is mine” by Polly Harvey serve to locate Stella as a representative of real women like the protagonist portrayed in the film. But Stella’s subjective imagining of her past is effectively used up by the film and having reached this point there is no future that can be imagined for Stella – unlike Barbara in Blue Black Permanent who manages to arrest the recurrence of the past and release herself from it. Stella has nowhere to go other than to a premature death by suicide as she imagines being encouraged to take an overdose of pills by her father and aunt. The scene serves as a précis of the film and underlines the material artifice between dreams, stories and reality.

The assessment of Blue Black Permanent and Stella Does Tricks as films which serve as examples of the Scottish imagination described by Watson and Scullion inevitably raises the question of the expressive possibilities and limitations of film as a language. The unconscious processes that occupy the protagonists of these two films result in a gendered mode of subjective expression that foregrounds the materiality of film and the transition between the language of words and the film image. The use of the image in these films remains primarily veridical but is used to articulate the unconscious and metaphysical imaginings of the protagonists.  The act of summoning the past in both films is expressive and affirmative rather than mournful and nostalgic, which brings with it an accompanying death drive with divergent consequences for the differently located protagonists. The psychological and metaphysical thresholds between parent and sibling, life and death, fantasy and reality are given a filmic materiality by the self-reflexive strategies of each film. While, the locations of Orkney and the cities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and London are key to these imaginings, both films ultimately suggest that thresholds are psychologically manifest as a state of mind rather than a physical or topographical feature – as Powrie suggests of the rite of passage film.[10] Stella’s rite of passage cannot be assumed to proceed from childhood to adulthood but rather from a deprived childhood into a life of recurring struggles for self-determination. While Barbara’s passage contains a similar need to rebut what might be passed on to her as an adult. In each case the passage is a transitory state where the threshold between the continuity of life and the finality of death through suicide is negotiated by the protagonists. The imagining of these movements occurs as a consequence of Scottish settings and viewed together Blue Black Permanent and Stella Does Tricks can be positioned as potential departures from the tradition of realism that defines so much of British Cinema and critical approaches to its objects. They also challenge the overtly masculine focus of many Scottish films.


Ian Goode, “Scottish cinema and Scottish imaginings: Blue Black Permanent and Stella Does Tricks” (2005)

Originally published in Screen, 46, 2 (2005), pp. 235-9.

[1] Roderick Watson, “Maps of Desire: Scottish Literature in the Twentieth Century” in T.M. Devine & R.J. Finlay eds., Scotland in the twentieth century (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996), pp.285-305; p.285.

[2] Adrienne Scullion “Feminine Pleasures and Masculine Indignities: Gender and Community in Scottish Drama: in Christopher Whyte ed., Gendering the Nation: Studies in Modern Scottish Literature (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1995) quoted in Duncan Petrie, Screening Scotland, (London, BFI, 2000), p.8.

[3] Phil Powrie, “On the threshold between past and present. Alternative heritage” in Andrew Higson and Justine Ashby eds., British Cinema, Past and Present (London: Routledge, 2000), pp.316-326, p.316.

[4] John Caughie, “Representing Scotland: New Questions for Scottish Cinema” in Eddie Dick ed., From Limelight to Satellite: A Scottish Film Book (London: Scottish Film Council, British Film Institute, 1990), pp.13-30, p.25.

[5] Maureen Turim, Flashbacks in Film. Memory and History (London: Routledge, 1989), p.1.

[6] Penny Thomson quoted in Jan Moir, “Public Lives: First person highly singular,” The Guardian, 31 March 1993, pp.8.

[7] Douglas Gifford, “Contemporary Fiction II: Seven Writers in Scotland: in Douglas Gifford & Dorothy McMillan eds., A History of Scottish Women’s Writing (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997), pp. 604-629, p. 620.

[8] Duncan Petrie, Contemporary Scottish Fictions. Film, Television and the Novel (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), pp. 71.

[9] Charlotte Brunsdon, “Not Having It All: Women and Film in the 1990s,” in Robert Murphy ed., British Cinema of the 1990s (London: BFI, 2000), pp. 167-177, p.172.

[10] Powrie op. cit. p.320, p.322.

Margaret Tait at EIFF 2004

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Edinburgh International Film Festival 2004, Margaret Tait retrospective programme brochure.

Courtesy of Peter Todd.

Richard Demarco on Margaret Tait

I first encountered the world of Margaret Tait when, in 1949 as Captain of Holy Cross Academy Rugby Team, I found myself playing against Preston Lodge School in East Lothian. Among the Preston Lodge players was Alex Pirie [Tait’s husband], then a schoolboy. When we finally met a number of years later, he recalled that we first met as opponents in a rugby match. I regard Alex Pirie as a unique expert on the life and work of Margaret Tait, an artist living and working in Scotland’s art world, ill-prepared to fully appreciate the wide-ranging and complex nature of the way she expressed herself in poetry and storytelling, in drawing and painting, and perhaps most importantly in film.

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Joss Winn: “Calypso”

While I intend to continue discussing the life and work of Margaret Tait, from hereon in I shall do so with reference to the hand-painted and hand-drawn films she produced throughout her career as a filmmaker. (For a more general discussion of her work until the late 1970s, see Leggett, 1979.) These films are:

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Alan Riach: ‘Tait’s MacDiarmid’

Piano notes, forthright, and chords, both bold and curious,
then song, a voice, a Scots voice, opening the air.
And in the air also, there is The Voice of the bbc
on radio waves, the information, official and approved –
(the books of poems, information, unofficial, the wedge) –
a radio, newspapers, poems and songs: What might you do, unorthodox,
against time and within it, measured and spontaneous, delicate and strong? Continue reading “Alan Riach: ‘Tait’s MacDiarmid’”

Peter Todd: “Focus On: Margaret Tait”

Little has been written about the Orcadian film maker and poet Margaret Tait. In August 2004 a major retrospective of her films was held at the Edinburgh International Film Festival followed in November by a touring programme of her work and accompanying book from LUX. She produced over 30 mainly self-made and financed films and also published three books of poetry and two of short stories.

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Gareth Evans: ‘Tait Modern’

Margaret Tait was one of the most distinctive artist film-makers these islands have produced

Until recently one of the UK’s most shamefully neglected but wildly talented artist film-makers, the fiercely independent Margaret Tait worked entirely at the edges of both the industry mainstream and the geographical mainland, living between Edinburgh and the Scottish Orkney islands. The maker, over five decades, of over thirty shorts and one feature (the inspirational Blue Black Permanent), as well as three volumes of poetry and two of short stories, she made almost all her work without any formal funding, driven, like many of her peer group in the United States, towards a recording of the heightened, phenomenal world through close observation of her immediate environment and daily life. Through her own company Ancona Films, set up after she returned from formal study in Rome at the height of the Neo-Realist movement, she set about making what she called ‘film poems’, often quoting the Spanish poet Lorca’s claim to be ‘stalking the image’ to define both her intention and method.

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So Mayer introduces Blue Black Permanent

Margaret Tait named her film, as Michael Romer attests, after the bottle of Quink ink that sat on her desk, and that is visible in the film on the desk of the poet Greta.[1] In tribute, I wrote the first draft of this talk in blue-black permanent ink, paying homage to Margaret Tait’s way with words and film, her concern with how artists and humans – particularly those who are women – make their mark, and with what lasts and what passes, and how it passes through her and on to us.

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Peter Todd on Margaret Tait

Margaret Tait was born on Orkney on Armistice Day, 1918 and died on Orkney in 1999.

She attended boarding school in Edinburgh, from age 8 to 16, followed by medical studies at the University. During the Second World War, she served at home and abroad in the Far East with the Royal Army Medical Corps. Post-war visits to France and Italy culminated in full-time study at the Centro Sperimentale film school in Rome. In the late 1940s, she worked in hospitals and undertook locum work at various places around the UK. Based mainly in Edinburgh from the early 1950’s, she moved to East Sutherland in the mid 1960s. A few years later she settled back on Orkney. Her first film was made in 1951, and her last completed in 1998. Her one feature film, Blue Black Permanent, was made in 1992. She also published three books of poetry and two of short stories (one for children) in the space of two years between 1959 and 1960.

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Ali Smith on Margaret Tait

Margaret Tait. Sweet old Scottish lady who made quaint little films all her life which are interesting to look at now because – look! that’s Princes St, Edinburgh! in the 1950s!, and that’s Rose St! it hasn’t changed! and isn’t it good to have archive film of a rural life that’s disappearing, that’s almost totally disappeared now, in her films about Orkney, and it’s so nice that she made little books of her poetry and stories and published them herself, she was such a creative soul, how sweet and interesting.

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